Humanity evolves every year. There are new needs, and subsequently opportunities for their implementation. The relationship between society and nature is extremely important and occupying a significant place in our lives. However, there are a number of problems that impede the greening of the environment. Unfortunately, in the past, under certain conditions of production and trade and the lack of control over environmental consequences, the attention was directed not in the direction of ecology.
Now, the preservation of ecology is not just a way to overcome problems or solving previously committed errors. This is a life and prospect of earnings. A set of measures to ensure environmental safety becomes an objective law. Recently, great attention is paid to man-made influence on humanity. Today, it is already possible to assert the greening at the global level when the states cooperate and conclude relevant contracts to reduce the negative impact.
Where did the duration of sustainable development?
Until the middle of the 20th century, under the concept of "development", only economic growth is important. Industry has developed a high-speed pace, and society experienced a transition from industrial to post-industrial. Subsequently, with a significant increase in poverty, the shares of the population in cities, and exhaustion of natural resources, people began to think about social and environmental efficiency. Thus, in 1972, the issues we're interested in the UN and nominated him at the conference in Stockholm. And in 1987, the International Commission on Environment and Development introduced a new concept of human existence - "Sustainable Development". This concept is designed to stimulate economic growth in the world simultaneously with improving the environmental quality of products and preserving the environment. The purpose of sustainable development is the assessment of the maximum environmental load on each particular market, within which it is capable of natural way to restore its qualities and characteristics. The concept was filled with the world.
Sustainable development in the world
The transition to sustainable development was recognized by international organizations and developing countries as a path to revival, which allows not only to restore growth rates but also increase them. For example, during the World Economic Crisis of 2008, the UN has prepared a new UNEP environment program. Its goal was to restore the economy and increase employment with the simultaneous acceleration of climate change, land and poverty degradation. The "Green Economy Initiative" was proclaimed to assist governments in landscaping of the economy, by reorganizing and reorienting politics, investment, and expenses on a series of sectors, such as environmentally friendly technology, renewable energy sources, water supply services, green transport, waste management, waste management, waste management Green "buildings and steel rural and forestry. In June 2009, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was adopted a declaration of green growth.
The Copenhagen Agreement, regarding the prevention of climate change, proposed in December 2009, strengthening the green economy wave, calling for low-carbon growth and a low-carbon economy. In 2012, the UN General Assembly decided to include in the UN Conference on Sustainable Development "Summit of Land Rio + 20" Green Economics, as one of the key themes. It is projected that in ten years, "green" energy investments will exceed 500 billion US dollars.
The world experience in managing an environmentally effective model of development shows that one of the key measures to form the environmental consciousness of the population and ensuring "sustainable consumption" is an eco-certification. More than 50 countries of the world have been introduced environmental marking programs. They cover almost all areas of activity and provide information to the consumer about how ecological of the entire life cycle from the production and distribution to the use and disposal of this product. Due to this, consumers can make a conscious decision, and manufacturers are motivated to develop and supply safer products.
In 2012, the World Wildlife Fund and Cleantech Company have published a rating of countries that are organized by the most favorable conditions for the development of new business in the field of environmentally friendly technologies. The first places in the ranking were Denmark, Israel, Sweden, Finland, and the United States.
In developed countries, the greening of national scientific and technical programs is actively undergoing, within which the implementation of ecotechnology takes place. Thus, in a number of countries (France, Germany, Canada, Great Britain, etc.), governments adopted state programs aimed at creating environmentally important technologies.
Principles of sustainable development
To significantly reduce the man-made load on the environment and the termination of the processes of degradation of its quality, it is necessary to radically change the existing management practice. That is why sustainable development is based on such principles and principles:
The principle of interaction. Man depends on nature and vice versa. This creates preconditions for the cost-effective interaction of environmental actions and entrepreneurial purposes. That is, environmental protection, investment in resource-saving ways of management, technique, and products.
Careful use of resources. The need to restrict the use of energy resources, which is one of the most threatening environmental factors, in particular by reducing energy intensity. Limited use of water resources.
Search and use of renewable energy sources and alternative fuels. One of the most promising ways of diversifying sources of energy supply of production and trade processes is the development of renewable energy, in particular winds, hydro and bioenergy, solar, geothermal energy.
Prevention of contamination and recycling. The so-called "Eco-Friendly" consumers avoid consuming products, which is likely to be a danger to life, health, and atmosphere, as well as:
- Makes a significant impact on the environment in the process of production, use, utilization
- Characterized inappropriate energy consumption during its manufacture, use, utilization
- Creates additional waste or through packaging materials, or because of an unjustified short lifetime
- Made of materials derived from rare biological species
- Provides animal testing, etc.
Sustainable development in Europe
At present, the Federal Republic of Germany is rapidly developing "green" business. So in the field of environmental industry, there are more than two million people, and the share of Germany in the world market of environmental technologies and products is about 20%. Since 2002 in Germany there is a "National Strategy for Sustainable Development" of the Federal Government. It is aimed at economic welfare in order to improve the quality of life and to preserve a healthy environment. In 2009, Germany became the leading exporter of the world of environmental goods and occupied 15.4% of the world market. For it, the USA, China, Japan, Great Britain, and France. Germany is also one of the few countries, which was able to complete the emissions of greenhouse gases.
This country for ten years in a row is a leader in the rating of ecological efficiency. Such successes Switzerland has reached an effective economic policy based on significant volumes of public funding and active participation from citizens. Analyzing the world experience we see that taxes contribute to the effectiveness of the environmental policy of the state. They contribute to reducing emissions and waste volumes, improve their recycling process. Stimulate the introduction of technologies and techniques that are intended in the production of less intense content of malicious substances of energy. In the 90s of the 20th century in Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland was conducted "greening" of tax systems for resource-saving. In the process of reform, the subsidies "ecologically dirty" industries were abolished and increased the number and rates of environmental taxes.
France is taxed in the packaging of drinks. The collected funds are redistributed by the state to solve the problems of utilization of packaging. Also in France, the market for environmental risks is rapidly developing (almost 42% of the entire insurance market) through the development of hazardous industries. The experience of France shows that the use of preventive measures in the process of environmental insurance allows to reduce the potential damage from an insured event, which is more important than the coverage of actual losses as a result of such a case.
And thanks to the Paris Peaceful Agreement on the 2015 climate - about 200 countries should reduce the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of 2020.
In 1999, the Amsterdam contract was signed, in which the principle of sustainable development was enshrined as one of the goals of the European Community. He put a high level of environmental protection, as one of the absolute priorities of the Convention on the protection of the ozone layer. In the country, taxation of all harmful industries was introduced. Sometimes the size of environmental expenses of pollutants reaches 50%. The Netherlands is a record of bicycles. Delivery of orders, moving, even for long distances is carried out using bicycles.
The limits of the average scope of environmental tax as a percentage of GDP are: in Belgium (5.2%), France (4.4%), Austria (5.9%). These are the smallest figures in Europe.
What restrains sustainable development?
First, the technology that is intended to minimize environmental problems by introducing them into production is complex and expensive. They require a comprehensive approach, significant investment, innovative engineering solutions, and skilled personnel. As well as new managerial approaches and public organization of life. Secondly, the implementation of environmental decisions does not finally address unemployment issues, which is also one of the principles of sustainable development. Development of educational programs to increase the percentage of employed and their implementation also requires the use of earthly resources. Third - tourism. Despite the pandemic in 2020, humanity will continue to travel and migrate. Greenhouse evaporation, formed during transportation of environmental development.
ICOOLA supports sustainable development principles. We are intended to minimize waste from the manufacture of a thousand units of new technology annually. Organize Apple Technique Bo In Us and Help Us to Save the Environment.